Saturday, June 27, 2020

The Animal Inside Us A Close Reading of Running in the Family - Literature Essay Samples

Throughout the novel Running in the Family by Michael Ondaatje, there are many occurrences of humans, mainly men, displaying their animalistic nature over their human nature that sets them apart from other animals, especially with one of the major themes of the whole novel being the comparison between foreigners and native islanders and the difference between civilization and nature on a broad scale. Thus, through the passage of the Visitor’s Book, Ondaatje uses symbols, hyperboles, and imagery in order to demonstrate the fact that every human, no matter how civilized, has an animalistic nature within them. As he presents the Visitors book, Ondaatje employs symbols relating to the visitor’s book in order to demonstrate the fact that there is an animalistic nature within everyone. More specifically, throughout this passage, Ondaatje develops the idea that this whole feud simply represented the evolution of news and media in developed countries, which, in the height of their conflicts, best represented the animalistic nature in people. When the conflict is first introduced, Ondaatje refers to it as his â€Å"father wag[ing] war with†¦a close relative of the eventual Prime Minister of Ceylon† (Ondaatje 151). Not only does he refer to it as so extreme as to be â€Å"waging war† but he also makes a key note about the position and rank of Sammy in society at the time as well. Ondaatje uses that symbol of the two rich and high class men waging war with each other to symbolize the press and how there are constant conflicts between significant people, but more important ly to symbolize the animalistic nature in both Sammy and Mervyn after creating a war over a Visitor’s Book. In addition, later in the passage, as the ‘war’ escalates, â€Å"pages continued to be torn out, ruining a good archival history of two semi-prominent Ceylon families† (Ondaatje 152). Their literary war goes so far as to ruining a historical relationship between their two families, yet Ondaatje uses this as a symbol for modern media as well. The fact that this simple conflict was enough to separate two families was just Ondaatje’s attempt at symbolizing the horrendous effects of all out warfare over press and media as well, both of which finally end up showing animalistic nature of these two elite men who otherwise seem like completely civilized people. Finally, the fact that the â€Å"literary war broke so many codes,† was another attempt by Ondaatje to symbolize the animalistic nature within these two men and the conflict that they we re part of (Ondaatje 152). The war between them, at this point, had escalated so much that it was regarded as breaking even the codes of normal wars, symbolizing what Ondaatje though about the nature of humanity in general. Thus, these symbols were used by Ondaatje in order to present the fact that humanity always has an animalistic nature inside that can reveal itself in times like this. In addition, Ondaatje uses vivid imagery throughout the passage of the Visitor’s Book in order to highlight the point that humans are essentially animalistic in nature. Through the beginning of the conflict highlighted in this passage, the types of things that Sammy and Mervyn were writing in the visitors’ books were just so extreme, starting with â€Å"bitch[ing] about everything, from service to badly made drinks†¦Ã¢â‚¬  all the way to â€Å"†¦one and a half pages of vindictive prose, dropping hints of madness and incest† (Ondaatje 151). The imagery used to describe the conflict and actions of the two men is so strong that is seems unreal, and yet it is made specifically like that by Ondaatje in order to illustrate the wildness those two men get into. Thus Ondaatje uses that highly expressive and extreme imagery to illustrate how equally extreme these men were getting because of their inner animalistic natures taking over. Later on in the passage, a s the conflict begins to escalate to unsustainable levels, Ondaatje describes the situation involving â€Å"pages [having] to be ripped out of visitors’ bools. Eventually one would write about the other even when the other was nowhere near the other† (Ondaatje 152). The vivid language and imagery used by Ondaatje in this excerpt not only emphasized the gravity of the situation with the two men but also the extent to which they had lost their human like aspects and had followed their animalistic nature and instincts completely, leading to such a dangerous situation. Thus not only does Ondaatje use the vivid imagery for presenting the extent to which these men had displayed their animalistic nature over their human nature, but also to communicate how dangerous of a situation it creates when people resort to their animal natures. Ondaatje, moreover, uses hyperboles throughout the passage of The Visitor’s Book in order to establish the fact that all people have a core animalistic nature within them, which, at a basic level, defines how they act. When Ondaatje introduces the conflict that started the feud, he writes that â€Å"it was on his travels by road that my father waged war with a certain Sammy Dias Bandaranaike† (Ondaatje 151). Despite the fact that this whole conflict was simply an issue between the two men themselves, and resulted in each writing bad comments about the other, it is talked about like a war in Ondaatje’s perspective and thus greatly exaggerated for the effect of dramatizing the implications of this conflict. Ondaatje ultimately uses this hyperbole as a method of more significantly presenting the fact that humans, at the core, operate based on an animalistic nature. Later on in the passage, as the conflict was escalating, â€Å"Sammy left first, wrote a half-page at tach on my father†¦My father wrote one and a half pages of vindictive prose about the Bandaranaike family† (Ondaatje 151). Both men begin to escalate the conflict to new highs on a much more personal level, which was also completely unwarranted based on the origin of the actual conflict. The true effect that Ondaatje made with that hyperbole, however, was to exemplify the animalistic nature of the decisions and actions done by both Sammy and Mervyn, in order to highlight that despite how civilized of men they were, there was no escape from acting based on their animalistic nature and instinct, which led them to do what they did. Finally, near the end of the passage, when Ondaatje reflects on the effects of the literary warfare that occurred, he comments that â€Å"the war petered out when neither Sammy†¦nor my father was allowed to write their impressions of a stay or a meal†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢constructive criticism’ dates from this period† (Ondaatje 152). T he effect of the actions of the two men resulted in both effectively being muted in order to prevent the warfare from continuing any more. Ondaatje uses this hyperbole to comment not only on the fact that the men were so animalistic in their actions from their nature, but also that it was so destructive that they had to be completely muted. What Ondaatje is trying to present through the end of this passage is not only that humans are fundamentally animalistic in nature, but also that civilization’s way of dealing with that problem is by completely muting those aspects of people until they effectively disappear. Thus, through the passage of the Visitors’ book, symbols, imagery, and hyperboles all work together to indicate that not only do all people have a fundamental animalistic nature within them, but that the animalistic nature is also perceived as very dangerous by society and thus muted as much as possible by modern civilizations. This means that in addition to the point that Ondaatje is making about the novel as a whole and the events that occur in Ceylon at the time, he is also making a commentary on the rest of the world, and how modern civilizations across the world have dealt with the perceived problem that Ondaatje highlights by controlling, to some extent, the level of freedom that people have in acting in an animalistic nature exclusively.

Thursday, June 4, 2020

Is Being Green Economically Viable For Indonesian Mining Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

ABSTRACT: Starting June 2009, Indonesia Stock Exchange in cooperation with environmental NGO, Yayasan KEHATI, formed a sustainability index named SRI-KEHATI. The Index is based on Sustainable and Responsible Investments standard of assessment. SRI-KEHATI enlisted only companies that being considered gave excellent performance both in stock market and sustainable development. Sustainable index itself has been recognized as a reliable benchmark for the Sustainable and Responsible Investment worldwide. However, SRI-KEHATI has brought up controversy as it enlisted three mining companies on its index; PT Aneka Tambang Tbk, PT Timah Tbk, and PT Bukit Asam Tbk. This research is questioned whether any economically viable for the mining companies could be gained in stock market by being enlisted on sustainability index. This paper shall introduce the implementation sustainability index and up bring the examination of the benefits of being listed on the sustainability index vis a v is the market capitalization of the mining companies. The objective of the paper is to find any influence of the sustainability index to the mining companies position in stock market along with the increasing of the companies corporate social and environmental responsibility. Some economy tools will be used to examine the profitability of the three mining companies before and after being enlisted on SRI-KEHATI index. Interview with each companys corporate secretary also being conducted in Indonesian language to extract the companys own perspective on the issue itself. ABBREVIATIONS IMA Indonesian Mining Association UNPAD Universitas Padjajaran ISEAS Institute of South East Asian Studies MC Mining Code WB World Bank NGO Non-Governmental Organization CaIPERS California Public Employees Retirement System NYCERS New York City Employee Retirement System SRI Sustainable and Responsible Investment PRI Principles of Responsible Investment GRI Global Repor ting Initiative CSR Corporate Social Responsibility CD Community Development ESG Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance SI Sustainable Investment RI Responsible Investment Eurosif European Sustainable Investment Forum USA United States of America UK United Kingdom HNWI High Net Worth Individuals IDX Indonesian Stock Exchange BAPEPAM-LK The Indonesia Capital Market and Financial Institution Supervisory Agency BAPEPAM former abbreviation of BAPEPAM-LK ANTAM PT Aneka Tambang, Tbk PTBA PT Bukit Asam, Tbk KEHATI The Indonesian Biodiversity Foundation NYSE New York Stock Exchange DJSI Dow Jones Sustainability Index ASX Australian Stock Exchange AuSII Australian SAM Sustainability Index DJIM World Index The Dow Jones Islamic Market World Index JSE Johannesburg Stock Exchange LSE London Stock Exchange FTSE Financial Times Stock Exchange Bovespa Brazilian Stock Exchange ASPI Advanced Sustainable Performance In dices TINS PT Timah Tbk GCG Good Corporate Governance JATAM Mining Advocacy Network WALHI The Indonesian Forum for Environment ASM Artisanal and Small-Scale Miners 1. INTRODUCTION In June 2009, The Indonesian Biodiversity Foundation (KEHATI) in cooperation with Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) officially launched SRI-KEHATI  [1]  . The index is enlisting 25 public-listed companies based on particular requirements  [2]  . All were chosen by KEHATI based on each companys excellent performance on CSR, CD and environmental management in recent years  [3]  . By nature, KEHATI emphasizes more on the environmental management for evaluating the companies being enlisted on the index  [4]  . This is another reason why SRI-KEHATI is more widely-known as the green index rather than sustainable index. As SRI has become a rising trend in investment in the last decades, enlisted in a Sustainability Index would enrich a public-listed company portfolio. Thus , this would lead to higher opportunities for the company to attract more investors with particular concerns on ESG factors and also provide supporting data to guarantee of minimum risk in long-term investment  [5]  . However, in practice, the economically viable of the index might not as expected if the Sustainability Index is being applied in countries with low environmental-concerns. Although there have been increasing number of companies to go green, it is still doubtful to have accelerated profits after being recognized as green company in Indonesia  [6]  . In general, Indonesia has low concern on environmental dimension on development  [7]  . Moreover, the business sectors established within the country are mostly lack of awareness on environmental damage and its rehabilitation, whether they are domestic or even foreign-investment companies  [8]  . This would bring us to the following questions posed in this paper: (i) is being green economically viabl e for the enlisted companies on sustainability index; (ii) are there any benefits gained other than direct profits for the company for being recognized as green company, and (iii) is the cost for ESG factors overcome the companys long-term profits? The paper would focus only on three mining companies enlisted on the SRI-KEHATI per June 2009 and October 2009 in regard of the scope of the module. The problems would identify the concept of SRI and sustainability index. Furthermore, the paper would examine the progression on stock prices being against facts based on interviews extracted from Corporate Secretary of ANTAM and Corporate Secretary of PT Timah, Tbk. Alongside statute approach as primary resources and bibliographic research as secondary resources. The last date of data collection is 26th January 2010. The paper concludes non-economical benefits achieved by the mining companies during the period of enlisted on SRI-KEHATI are larger than its direct profits gained on at th e moment. Even though, profits in the stock market gained by the three mining companies after being enlisted on SRI-KEHATI were increasing too. This success example of being green companies should encourages other mining companies to establish better performance in ESG for better investment prospect. OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABILITY INDEX IN INDONESIA Background of Sustainability Index in Relevance with SRI The concept of Sustainable and Responsible Investment (SRI) was first introduced as investment process based on social issues rather than to answers more largely concern and sustainable issues. Therefore, the abbreviation was stands for Socially Responsible Investment in the beginning instead of Sustainable and Responsible Investment as recognized today. Socially Responsible Investment has infiltrated the business world since 1969 after some investors brought up resolution of ethical investment as the response of the uprising Dow Chemicals case  [9]  . In 1984, CaIPERS issued investment guidelines that regard the social concern for investing more than 25% of the pension funds it holds  [10]  , followed by NYCERS. Since then socially responsible investment become influential in the global stock markets. Socially Responsible Investment has grown into more thematic investments along the changes on global concerns toward sustainability development. Traditional Socially Responsible Investment still preserved its existence to answer diverse concerns  [11]  , but new trend in investment is being introduced to address sustainability challenges. It is called as Sustainable Investment  [12]  (SI) or otherly known as Sustainable and Responsible Investment  [13]  (SRI). Eurosif defined SRI as any form of investment that integrated investors financial objectives with their concerns on environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues  [14]  . In Eurosifs perspective, SRI covers ethical investments, SI, responsible investments (RI), et hical investments and any other investment process  [15]  that shares similar concerns for financial analysis and decision-making. But strong supporters of SRI like Pax World insisted there should be strong line between SRIs definition and other mission-based investments  [16]  . SRI is about to affiliate assessment on ESG factors with relevant financial performances by incorporate both accurate financial and proper ESG analysiss for investing in industry-wide best practices with sustainable business models  [17]  . SRI targeted on companies that implemented corporate sustainability business approach. They are attractive their business approach is aimed to enhance the shareholder values in long-term continuously while set high standard on their management  [18]  . Following the demand of reliable benchmark for SRI, several stock exchanges started to introduces Sustainability Index  [19]  . NYSE launched DJSI and DJIM World Index, LSE launching FTSE4Good, wh ile European markets established The ASPI Eurozone  [20]  . JSE initiated JSEs SRI Index  [21]  . Bovespa launched the Bovespa Corporate Sustainability Index  [22]  , ASX launched AuSII  [23]  , Japan launched Dow Jones Sustainability Japan 40Index  [24]  . SRI-KEHATI : Behind the Index SRI-KEHATI is constructed as a Sustainability Index, a reliable tool for SRI investors to examine the enlisted companies profitability supported by their environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) performance  [25]  . The index was designed to address demands on Sustainable and Responsible Investment (SRI) process  [26]  . Therefore, the abbreviation of SRI and KEHATI, as the most influential agency on the indexs assessment, are being used to name the newly introduced index in IDX. SRI-KEHATI index is published for public in 8th June 2009 and since then could be found in IDX 2nd Quarterly Report  [27]  and the following reports afterward. Since it f irst launch, SRI-KEHATI only enlisting twenty five companies. . KEHATI claimed they selected the enlisted companies with some levels of selections. To ensure objectivity and efficiency, KEHATI formed an Independent Committee which involved KEHATI stakeholders, IDX authorities, and independent representative  [28]  . On the early stage, The Committee would selects public-listed companies with minimum assets of one trillion rupiah (approximately 100 million USD) by using the financial data provided by IDX. The Committee then filtered the numbers by examines the companies commitment on GCG, CSR, human rights, and labour  [29]  . These fundamental criterions each have its own weight on the selection process. The data is extracted from appraisal report issued by OWW Consulting for SRI-KEHATIs purposes  [30]  . SRI-KEHATI will undergo two evaluation periods annually, October and April. METHODOLOGY Interview with Corporate Secretary of ANTAM and Corporate Secretary of TINS Two separate interviews were made with Corporate Secretary of mining companies respectively. Until the last day of data collection, questionnaires of interview were only being responded by ANTAM and TINS. Information was gathered from Bimo Budi Satriyo Corporate Secretary of ANTAM by electronic mail correspondence in Indonesian language on 22nd January 2010. While Information was gathered from Abrun Abubakar Corporate Secretary of TINS was taking by notes during live conversation by using international call to his personal number. The interview meant to extract their companies view and experiences being enlisted on SRI-KEHATI. Both respondents being questioned same issues, that being presented on the introduction section of this paper. Analyze based on Financial Data Second method of information analyze for this paper is by analyzing fluctuation of SRI-KEHATI index, fluctuation of ANTAM, TINS, and PTBAs stock price right before being enlisted on SRI-KEHATI and after being enlisted on SRI-KEHATI. The data mainly used are provided by IDX Statistical 2nd Quarter 2009, IDX Statistical 3rd Quarter 2009, IDX Monthly Statistic November 2009, and IDX Monthly Statistic December 2009. The data is being compared with ANTAM 2nd Quarter 2009 Financial Report and ANTAM 3nd Quarter 2009 Financial Report also Sustainable Report 2008 issued by TINS. FINDINGS Controversy of Enlisting Mining Companies in SRI-KEHATI KEHATI aimed SRI-KEHATI to strengthen strategic alliances public participation on biodiversity and environmental protection  [31]  . Nonetheless, controversy still risen against the listing. It is because ANTAM, PTBA, and TINS remains on SRI-KEHATI in the first listing published on June 2009 and in the second listing on 29th October 2009  [32]  , JATAM and WALHI are the most vocal against the listing. JATAM accused TINS is responsible for neglecting exhausted open-pit minings without proper reclamation in Bangka-Belitung province. JATAM also brings up the local conflict between ANTAM and ASM and other issued faced by PTBA.  [33]  Alongside JATAM, WALHI stated no reason should be accepted to enlist mining companies in green index  [34]  . WALHI and JATAM both doubted SRI-KEHATI main objective as ESG campaign would not be effective as it would be simply used as the companies branding instead of improving the companies commitment on GCG and CSR  [35]  . Regarding this issue, Bimo Budi Satriyo Corporate Secretary of ANTAM answered, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦By being enlisted on SRI-KEHATI, ANTAMs commitment towards CSR has recognized externally. This is shown the negative stigmatization on mining companies as main cause of environmental damage is inappropriate, at least for ANTAMÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Ã‚  [36] Economically Viable vs. Non-economically Benefits on Being Green Findings extracted from interview with the respondents according to questions of economically viabl e for the enlisted companies on sustainability index were similar. Abrun Abubakar Corporate Secretary of TINS stated, ..There are no significant changes, because stock price fluctuation is more influenced by the companys performanceÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Ã‚  [37] While Bimo Budi Satriyo of ANTAM stated, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Until now there is no empiric evidence in relevance between ANTAM enlisted in SRI-KEHATI with fluctuation of stock price or even the increase of volume trading in the stock exchangeÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Ã‚  [38] In contrast, there are some fluctuations after the three companies being enlisted on the index based on statistical analysis provided by IDX in Figure 1.1. The data is taken during the period of June 2009 to January 2010 on ANTAMs stock price, PTBAs stock price, and TINSs stock price PTBA achieved the most accelerated increase in the stock exchange, while TINS reached higher price after a few month. ANTAM remains statics with some downwards movement in the end of 2009. In contrast with ANTAM 3rd Quarter 2009 Financial Report, where ANTAM stated its share price increased 19.5% during July-Sept 2009  [39]  . Figure 1.1, IDX 2010. Based on IDX data, the companies performance in SRI-KEHATI is overall good by looking the progression of lines as shown in Figure 1.2; Figure 1.2, IDX 2010. Both respondents agreed the company has earned other benefits else in economical terms for being recognized as green company. Bimo Budi Satriyo stated, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦regarding the corporate image and reputation, the company is getting better respect from investors and shareholders. When we went for non-deal road show abroad, some potential investors were directly asked us questions on environmental management and community development. CSR has been an important issue for our shareholders and investors, even from abroadÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Ã‚  [40] His statements a re relevant to ANTAM Financial Report which stated 45% of ANTAMs top shareholders are foreign investors  [41]  . Abrun Abubakar viewed the issue further based on his statement, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Some investors in the stock exchange with high environmental concerns are more attracted to companies enlisted in SRI-KEHATICompanies performance is influenced by environmental management and community development. Therefore, if the company is excellent in managing the community development and the environment issue, it will reduce the investment risk into minimum. The investment become safer and sustainable for long-termÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Ã‚  [42] In the issue of the cost for ESG factors could overcome the companys long-term profits; both respondents were stating it would not but with different arguments. Abrun Abubakar stated, ..No, it is not. It is not a problem for us after all as it has been stipulated in Article 76 of Mining Code that every compa ny is obliged to perform CSRÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Ã‚  [43] Based on TINSs Sustainability Report 2008  [44]  the company allocated Rp 5.9 billion in 2008 for CSR, as shown in Figure 1.3. A reduction from 2007s allocation but still higher than other previous years. Figure 1.3, TINS 2008 Realization of Partnership Programme Fund 2003-2008 Based on ANTAM Sustainability Report 2008, the company spent nearly 5 % from the 2007 companys net profit to provide funds for their CSR programme  [45]  . It was approximately Rp 244.3 billion. Bimo Budi Satriyo gave more comprehensive explanation regarding the issue, as follows; We felt the cost we spent to support CSR, environmental management, and community developments are still much lower compared with long-term profits gained by the company. ANTAM understands environmental management and community development are part of the business risk that needs to be carefully managed. Took active participation community deve lopment as good corporate citizen would reduce any disturbances to the companys operation. Risks of failures on environmental management could make the company suffers great loss while we have to spend high cost on its mitigation. That is why we are not focusing merely on profit gains, but also the business sustainability and developmentÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦Ã‚  [46] CONCLUSION The emphasize of SRI is lying on the optimization of using the ESG material for investment analysis and decision-making process in a particular form of investment that would lead to sustainability development, not just as for responding on social concerns at present. In SRI, investors could be assured the investment would be managed under disciplined management with less resistance from stakeholders in the community regarding the by-products of the investment itself. Such as, environmental damages, local conflicts, and other social concerns. Sustainability Index is then created to provide r eliable and investable benchmark for SRI. Whereas there is neither rigid standard of making the index ever structured, most Sustainable Index is designed to be independent and providing rational, investable benchmark a basis for funds and derivatives that being focused on sustainability companies. The research conclude that for mining companies being recognized as green companies is economically viable based on the progression of the stock price. However, both companies that being observed disagree the analyse as they felt the new condition is not significant enough be claimed has boosted their profitability along the listing period. Other factors have to be observed to examine the company profitability after being enlisted in a sustainability index. However, both companies agree they have gained other benefits exclude direct profits for being a progressive company in CSR and CD respectively. More investors get attracted to invest, the shareholders interest become maintained i n better and sustainable manner, cost-efficiency for mitigation, and business life-span could be prolong without disturbance from local community and environmental factors. Profitability could be gained as expected as long the operation is working according to business plan with minimum risk during the process. In this case, the economically viable of being a green company is by expanding the company target into more sustainable development in bigger scope. Rather than short-term profit gain and secluded the development only within the companys body itself. Therefore, being a company that reach SRIs standard is actually provide long-term profit and benefit for the business. Lastly, the research has found CSR programme budget for both companies that being observed are vary annually. Companies use review and budget estimation to reach the CSR, CD and environmental management targets without over-spending. Though the budget is taken from the companys last net profit instead came from long-term saving, conclusion of the relation between CSR cost and long-term profit could be taken from these data. As every year the company save around 5% or less for funding the CSR programme, it means in long-term the company has sure it would not absorbed most on their profit. Therefore providing cost for CSR, CD and environmental management is not a burden for mining company expenditure. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES BIBLIOGRAPHY

Monday, May 18, 2020

Video Games Effect On Children - 948 Words

â€Å"Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children’s and adolescents’ lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States† (Granic, Lobel and Engels 66). Video games are a big part of life in America and around the world. Technological advances allow for many different devices where video games can be played, so it is not hard for children to get their hands on video games. There is also a wide variety of games, from building games to board games to war games. There is a game out there for everyone. Video games have become a very common activity for children, but at a price. Playing video games is harmful because it can create addiction, desensitize players to violence, and cause depression. Although playing†¦show more content†¦The link between video games and cognitive skills has also been studied. One study found that people who played shooter type video games showed, â€Å"faster and more accurate attention allocation, high spatial resolution in visual processing, and enhanced mental rotation abilities† (Granic, Lobel and Engels 71). Research has shown that there are several benefits of playing video games; they can increase the player’s education, mood, and social skills. While research has shown that there are some benefits to playing video games, it has also shown that video games can be addictive, desensitize a player to violence, and cause depression. When video games are played with many people online, it can create an environment of compulsive play (Xu, Turel, and Yuan). Kids work together and then feel obligated to play and help their team. This feeling of obligation can lead to hours of playing time, which can lead to addiction. Also in these multiplayer games, there is no end. The games are constantly updated with new tasks to complete (Xu, Turel, and Yuan). A need to finish the game or get to the next task can create an addiction as well. A video game addiction can hinder grades, family time and sleep. Video games may also desensitize a player to real life violence. One study found that even 20 minutes of violent video game exposure decreased the

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Hawthornes Scarlet Letter, Hemingways A Farewell to Arms...

Many people face many conflicts in their everyday life against society, their peers, and even themselves. Despite this common similarity among all, every person handles the same situation differently. While most individuals would make their choices based on society’s expectation, others would take unconventional actions in order to solve their problems. This idea is seen in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms, and Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Through their rebellious nature to deviate from their roles forced upon them by society, Hester Prynne, Lieutenant Henry, and Huckleberry Finn all use unorthodox measures in order to solve their conflicts. In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel, The Scarlet Letter, Hester defies the status society has given to her by embracing her sin and digressing from a typical Puritan woman. Hester was ridiculed on the stand in front of her peers for having an affair w hile her husband was away, resulting in a child. Located in 16th Century Puritan colony, Hester’s punishment for adultery would have been immediate execution. Instead, after being humiliated and casted aside as an adulteress, Hester was branded with an A on her chest and forced to live on the outskirts of the colony in exile. Despite the pessimistic future that Hester beholds, Hester attempts to cope with the isolation, even though â€Å"lonely as was Hester’s situation, and without a friend on earth who dared to show himself, she,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Media Managing Research Paper Overview - 1203 Words

Researchers often assume that a firm’s media coverage is an exogenous result of actual news about the firm. In this paper I show that firms actively manage the quantity of media coverage they receive, increasing coverage of good news and decreasing coverage of bad news. Firms do this media managing by including â€Å"media experts† on their board of directors. That is, coverage in the news media is, in part, a choice that firms make. Here is an example that describes the expectations of firms from media experts I consider in this paper: In 1985, former Philip Morris chief executive Hamish Maxwell wrote the following in an internal memo: â€Å"A number of media proprietors that I have spoken to are sympathetic to our position – Rupert Murdoch†¦show more content†¦Asset pricing literature argues that information asymmetry of this sort should cause discount rates to rise through liquidity channel (Kelly and Ljungqvist, 2009). I present evidence consistent with this interpretation using a difference-in-difference design — firms with media experts suffer an increase in cost of capital by 120 to 300 basis points per year that is attributed to liquidity beta. The finding that board member induced managed media coverage reduces liquidity beta complements the findings of other papers studying the liquidity impact of press coverage in other contexts (see Bushee, Core, Guay, and Hamm,2010; Solomon, 2009; and Soltes, 2009). If having media on board increases future press coverage, but dampens asset prices through the liquidity channel, why would firms actively seek such board members? A simple cost/benefit analysis suggests that firms should get something out of having such people on board. Media experts may help hire better public/investor relation firms or consultants. In other words, such board members may provide connections to media and related industries (e.g., advertising, public relations). Given that advertising spending is also a big revenue item for media companies, firms would benefit from media expertise on board through efficient allocation of advertising expenditures. Consistent with this interpretation, I find reduction in cost of capital as measured by reduced exposure to Fama and Frenchs HML factor. BecauseShow MoreRelatedHealth Care Management Problem Assessme1522 Words   |  7 Pagesyour decisions. In this assessment, you will apply the critical thinking process to identify, research, and suggest a possible solution to a health care management problem. To prepare, complete the following: Review New Health Care Management Realities, located in the Assessment Resources. Select a health care management-related topic. 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Research on the Legalization of Marijuana Essay examples

Research on the Legalization of Marijuana Americans have been trying to legalize marijuana for years. It seems that all of their opinions divide into three basic groups. Many think that it is not worth legalizing marijuana, many seem to think it should be legalized, and a group of people say it should only be legalized for medicinal purposes. In the following paragraphs I will try to show you reason for all three opinions. My hopes of doing this research project were to specifically determine what effects marijuana in combination with different substances had on the body. I also decided to determine the differences between marijuana and tobacco, due to the high misconceptions about both of them in society today. First of all, I†¦show more content†¦Marijuana usually does not contain more than 1 percent of THC. There are stronger drugs related to THC, such as hash oil, which can contain up to a 28 percent THC level. There have been some cases where street marijuana has been found to contain up to 5 percent THC content. That is very potent for normal marijuana, and is probably very hard to come by in the United States. Other countries seem to use different forms of THC related drugs such as hashish, and hemp. Both of these contain more THC than marijuana. As far as long term effects of tobacco and marijuana go, they are about the same. Cancer should appear in the lungs of a tobacco-user earlier due to the amount the tobacco-user smokes in relation to a normal marijuana smoker. There have been many assumptions that marijuana will cause long term brain damage and so on, but, clinically, none of this has ever been proven. In fact, in a college survey, the students who use the drug regul arly possessed a higher GPA than those who do not use. This is an entire different subject, but it was interesting to learn. Both tobacco and marijuana contain tar. Marijuana contains a little more and will actually feel heavier on the lungs after smoking. Tar has been found to produce tumors on the skin of animals that it is applied to. Cancer has definitely been related toShow MoreRelatedResearch Essay on Legalization of Marijuana1979 Words   |  8 PagesLegalization of Marijuana: Risky or Beneficial? Tammy Russ COM/156 January 15, 2012 Dierdre McKee Legalization of Marijuana A random telephone poll conducted by CBS News in October 2011 revealed that 77% of those polled believe that doctors should be allowed to prescribe marijuana for serious illnesses. This compares to 65% just one year prior (, 2011). Popular opinion that marijuana should be legalized for medicinal purposes is shifting as the positive aspects of enactingRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana Research Paper1726 Words   |  7 PagesMarijuana is a very popular drug that many people have used. Over 98 million people over the age of 12 in the United States have smoked marijuana. 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Grapes Of Wrath By Steinbeck (691 words) Essay Example For Students

Grapes Of Wrath By Steinbeck (691 words) Essay Grapes Of Wrath By SteinbeckThe Grapes of Wrath: The Purpose of the Interchapters Sara Stark Initially, Ifound the interchapters to be annoying, interruptions to the story. It was onlywhen I realized the point in having the interchapters that I understood that notonly did they not interrupt the story, but they added to it tremendously. Theinterchapters provide indirect comments or general situations which suggestsomething about the personal tragedies of the main characters. These commentsand situations help give the reader an understanding of what the characters aregoing through by either showing metaphorically their present or future triumphsand struggles or explaining the history of the period that they lived in. Chapter three is an interchapter. It describes a concrete highway that a landturtle struggled to cross. The turtle was finally almost there when it was hitby a truck and its shell was chipped and it was thrown on its back. The turtlehad to struggle even hard but it did get going again. This chapter representedthe continual struggle of that the Joads would have to face throughout theentire story. Throughout the novel the Joads meet many hardships. They areforced to leave their home, lose family members such as the grandparents andNoah, work for low wages, and suffer from hunger floods and cruel prejudices inCalifornia. But, just as the turtle refused to be swayed from his purpose sowill the Joads. Chapter five is an interchapter that discusses a tractors hiredby banks or a corporations that would come to the land and plow through it,destroying everything in its path. The chapter is an abstract conflict betweenthe tenant farmer and the banks and shows the pain of a tenant farmer uponle aving the land that was settled by their grandfather. The tenant farmer was soupset that he threatened to shoot the driver . Another chapter describes atenant farmer who has to leave and is cheated into paying to much for a car. Chapter nine describes the generalized families who must sell their sentimentalgoods at absurdly low prices. These chapters present the situations which theJoads come across very soon. The Joads have to leave their land and sell alltheir things. Pa dreads telling Ma, in chapter ten, the price he sold theirthings for. Grandpa threatens to kill the tractor driver who was plowing theirland just like the tenant farmer who Steinback described. The Joads had to buy aused car in order to go to California. The interchapters provided general socialsituations which Joads had to face. Interchapters nineteen and twenty one thedevelopment of land ownership in California. Chapter nineteen explains how theAmericans took California from the Mexicans and people known assquatters acquired lots of land and thought of it as their own. Theyhired people to work the land and became great owners. The problem was that manypeople from Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas began to arrive and the owners didntwant them to become squatters so they hated them and called themOkies. These owners cut wages in order to pay policemen to guard andprotect their property. In the next chapter, the Joads are called Okies and ayoung man explains to Tom that the people are afraid that the Okies will getorganized if they stay in one place for long enough so they push them around. This man also explains how no one can get people together to organize becausethe cops will arrest whoever starts up. Chapter twenty one describes how thepeople with small jobs in California are afraid of the Okies because they dontwant to lose their jobs. The big companies could make wages very low becausepeople were starving and would work for low wages. The following chapterexplains how Tom met Timothy Wallace who told him that he would only have hisjob for a couple of days and his wages were being cut. The interchaptersdescribe general situations and the chapters after them explain how thatparticular situation affects or will affect the Joads. The reader can learn manydetails about the hardships that the Joads went through by reading about thehardships of the migrant workers as a whole. By certain metaphors, like theturtle, that Steinback used in the interchapters we can learn about the natureand the struggle of the Joads throughout the novel.